Axel Dreher

Journal Activity
Research Interests
Discussion Papers
Teaching (pdf)
Conferences (pdf)
Address (from September 2008):
Georg-August University Goettingen
Platz der Goettinger Sieben 3
D-37073 Goettingen

Phone:  +49 (0)551 39 14209
Fax:  +49 (0)551 39 7302




Current Position
Professor in Economics, Chair of Development Economics and International Economics, Georg-August University Goettingen, Germany

Previous Positions
2005-2008 Assistant Professor in Economics (Oberassistent), Chair of Applied Economics, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Assistant Professor in Economics (Wissenschaftlicher Assistent), Department of Economics,
University of Konstanz, Germany and Thurgau Institute of Economics, Switzerland
Lecturer in Economics, University of Exeter, School of Business and Economics, United Kingdom
2000-2003 Lecturer in Economics (Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter)
Department of Economics, University of Mannheim, Germany

Part Time and Temporary Positions
2008 Visiting Professor
Georg-August-Universität Goettingen, Chair in Development Economics, Goettingen, Germany.
Visiting Researcher
- CES, Munich, Germany.
Visiting Researcher
- RWI Essen, Essen, Germany,
- Kiel Institute for World Economics, Kiel, Germany.
Economist (external)
International Monetary Fund, Independent Evaluation Office (IEO), Washington, D.C., USA.
Visiting Professor
Economics Education and Research Consortium, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Kiev, Ukraine.

2003 Ph.D. in Economics (Dr. rer. pol.), University of Mannheim, Germany, 
Dissertation thesis on "A Public Choice Analysis of IMF and World Bank Lending" 
("Die Kreditvergabe von IWF und Weltbank: Ursachen und Wirkungen aus politisch-ökonomischer Sicht")
Advisor: Prof. Dr. Roland Vaubel
1999 Master in Economics (Diplom-Volkswirt), University of Mannheim, Germany, 
Diploma thesis on “A Critical Assessment of Generational Accounting” 
("Eine kritische Bestandsaufnahme des Generational Accounting")
Advisor: Prof. Dr. Robert K. von Weizsäcker
1994-1999 Studies in Economics, Department of Economics
University of Mannheim, Germany
1992 Graduation from secondary school (“Abitur”) at Friedrich List Gymnasium Mannheim


Awards and Distinctions

Top-100 researchers in German-speaking area since 2003 (pdf)
Top-100 researchers in German-speaking area below age 40

Ph.D. scholarship, 1999-2000, GdF

Professional Activity

The Review of International Organizations, Springer (2005-).
Associate Editor e-conomics (2007-).  

Advisory Board Index of Economic Freedom, The Heritage Foundation (2007-).

Affiliated Professor KOF Swiss Economic InstituteETH Zurich, Switzerland (2008-).  
Research affiliate
CESifo (2007-).
Conference organization Political Economy of International Organizations II (with Richard Baldwin, Simon Hug, Katharina Michaelowa), Geneva, Switzerland (2009).
  call for papers
  Political Economy of International Organizations I (with Katharina Michaelowa), Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland (2008).

Refereeing American Political Science Review Journal of Development Economics
  Applied Economics Journal of Development Studies
  Applied Economics Quarterly Journal of Economic Growth

Comparative Economic Studies Journal of Economic Surveys
  Eastern Economic Journal Journal of Financial Stability
  ECB Working Paper Series Journal of Health Economics

Economics of Governance
Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics

Economics & Politics Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization

Economics of Transition Journal of Money, Credit and Banking
  Emerging Markets Finance and Trade Journal of Official Statistics

European Economic Review Journal of Population Economics
  Energy Economics Journal of Politics
  European Journal of Comparative Economics Journal of Public Economics

European Journal of Political Economy Open Economies Review

European Union Politics
Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik

Finanzarchiv Public Choice

Fiscal Studies Review of Development Economics

Review of International Economics
  International Organization Review of International Political Economy
  International Review of Law and Economics
Review of World Economics
  International Sociology
  International Tax and Public Finance World Development
  Journal of Comparative Economics World Economy

Journal of Conflict Resolution  

Research Interests

- Public-Choice-Analysis of International Organizations, especially International Monetary Fund and World Bank
- Economic Development, especially Globalization, Aid, Growth
- Public Economics, especially Corruption and Shadow Economy
- International Economics
- Political Economy
- Economics of Happiness




3. The Political Economy of the United Nations Security Council (with James Vreeland), under contract with Cambridge University Press.
2. Measuring Globalization - Gauging its Consequences (with Noel Gaston and Pim Martens), New York: Springer (2008).
1. Die Kreditvergabe von IWF und Weltbank: Ursachen und Wirkungen aus politisch-ökonomischer Sicht, Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin (2003).


Articles in refereed Journals


Development Aid and International Politics: Does membership on the UN Security Council influence World Bank decisions? (with Jan-Egbert Sturm and James Vreeland), Journal of Development Economics, forthcoming.
31. How do Institutions Affect Corruption and the Shadow Economy? (with Christos Kotsogiannis and Steve McCorriston), International Tax and Public Finance, forthcoming.
30. Foreign Exchange Intervention and the Political Business Cycle: A Panel Data Analysis (with Roland Vaubel), Journal of International Money and Finance, forthcoming.
29. On Decentralization and Life Satisfaction (with Christian Bjørnskov and Justina A.V. Fischer), Economics Letters 99, 1: 147-151 (2008).
28. The Political Economy of IMF Forecasts (with Silvia Marchesi and James Vreeland), Public Choice, forthcoming.
27. Does Aid for Education Educate Children? Evidence from Panel Data (with Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp), World Bank Economic Review, forthcoming.
26. Does US Aid Buy UN General Assembly Votes? A Disaggregated Analysis (with Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp), Public Choice, forthcoming.
25. Diesel price convergence and mineral oil taxation in Europe (with Tim Krieger), Applied Economics, forthcoming.

Does High Inflation Cause Central Bankers to Lose Their Job? Evidence Based on A New Data Set (with Jan-Egbert Sturm and Jakob de Haan), European Journal of Political Economy, forthcoming.
[Turnover rates of central bankers are available at].

23. Does political proximity to the U.S. cause terror? (with Martin Gassebner), Economics Letters 99, 1: 27-29 (2008).
22. Has Globalisation Increased Inequality? (with Noel Gaston), Review of International Economics 16, 3: 516-536 (2008).
21. The Impact of Globalization on the Composition of Government Expenditures. Evidence from Panel Data (with Jan-Egbert Sturm and Heinrich W. Ursprung), Public Choice 134, 3-4: 263-292 (2008).
20. Do gasoline prices converge in a unified Europe with non-harmonized tax rates? (with Tim Krieger), Energy Journal 29: 41-68 (2008).
Cross-Country Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Exploring Different Determinants Across Groups in Society (with Christian Bjørnskov and Justina A.V. Fischer), Social Choice and Welfare 30, 1: 119-173 (2008).
18. Do Donors Target Aid in Line with the Millennium Development Goals? A Sector Perspective of Aid Allocation (with Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp), Review of World Economics 143, 4: 596-630 (2007).
17. Staff growth in international organizations: A principal-agent problem? An empirical analysis (with Roland Vaubel and Uğurlu Soylu), Public Choice 133, 3-4: 275-295 (2007).
16 Corruption Around the World: Evidence from a Structural Model (with Christos Kotsogiannis and Steve McCorriston), Journal of Comparative Economics 35, 3: 443-466 (2007).
[Index of Corruption is available at http://www.axel-dreher/corruption index.xls].
15. IMF Programs and Reforms – Inhibition or Encouragement? (with Sarah M. Rupprecht), Economics Letters 95, 3: 320-326 (2007).
Independent Actor or Agent? An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of US Interests on IMF Conditions (with Nathan M. Jensen), The Journal of Law and Economics 50, 1: 105-124 (2007).
The Bigger the Better? Evidence of the Effect of Government Size on Life Satisfaction Around the World (with Christian Bjørnskov and Justina A.V. Fischer), Public Choice 127, 3: 267-292 (2007).
Has Globalisation Really Had No Effect on Unions? (with Noel Gaston), Kyklos 60, 2: 165-186 (2007).
Is There a Causal Link between Currency and Debt Crises? (with Bernhard Herz and Volker Karb), International Journal of Finance and Economics 11, 4: 305-325 (2006).
Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a new Index of Globalization, Applied Economics 38, 10: 1091-1110 (2006).
[Index of Globalization is available at].
IMF and Economic Growth: The Effects of Programs, Loans, and Compliance with Conditionality, World Development 34, 5: 769-788 (2006).
The Influence of Globalization on Taxes and Social Policy – an Empirical Analysis for OECD Countries, European Journal of Political Economy 22, 1: 179-201 (2006).
[Index of Globalization is available at].
Does the IMF Influence Fiscal and Monetary Policy? The Journal of Policy Reform 8, 3: 225-238 (2005).
A Public Choice Perspective of IMF and World Bank Lending and Conditionality, Public Choice 119, 3-4: 445-464 (2004).
The Influence of IMF Programs on the Re-election of Debtor Governments, Economics & Politics 16, 1: 53-75 (2004).
Do IMF and IBRD cause moral hazard and political business cycles? Evidence from panel data (with Roland Vaubel), Open Economies Review 15, 1: 5-22 (2004).
Reprinted in: Graham Bird and Dane Rowlands (eds.), The International Monetary Fund and the World Economy Vol. II, pp., Edward Elgar Publishing (2007).
The Causes and Consequences of IMF Conditionality (with Roland Vaubel), Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 40, 3: 26-54 (2004).
Reprinted in: Graham Bird and Dane Rowlands (eds.), The International Monetary Fund and the World Economy Vol. II, pp., Edward Elgar Publishing (2007).
The Influence of Elections on IMF Programme Interruptions, The Journal of Development Studies 39, 6: 101-120 (2003).
Reprinted in: Graham Bird and Dane Rowlands (eds.), The International Monetary Fund and the World Economy Vol. II, pp., Edward Elgar Publishing (2007).
The Contribution of the IMF and the World Bank to Economic Freedom (with Bernhard Boockmann), European Journal of Political Economy 19, 3: 633-649 (2003).


Contributions to Collected Works and other Publications

13. The Impact of International Organizations on the Environment: An Empirical Analysis (with Magdalena Ramada y Galán Sarasola), in: F. Biermann, A. Schreyögg and B. Siebenhüner (ed.), International Organizations in Global Environmenetal Governance, London: Routledge (2008).  
12. The Economic Costs of Corruption: A Survey and New Evidence (with Thomas Herzfeld), in: Annals of the IVth Global Forum on Fighting Corruption, Office of the Comtroller General of Brazil, pp. 263-292 (2008).  
11. The Economic Costs of Corruption: A Survey of the Empirical Evidence (with Thomas Herzfeld), in: F. Columbus (Ed.): Economic Corruption and its Impact, Nova Science (2008).  
Sectoral Aid Priorities and the MDGs: Missed Targets? (with Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp), Poverty in Focus, October, pp. 16-17 (2007).

9. IWF und Weltbank: Unzulänglichkeiten in der Entwicklungspolitik, Orientierungen zur Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftspolitik 113, 3: 49-55, Ludwig-Erhard-Stiftung (2007) .  
8. The relation between inequality and happiness - do subjective perceptions matter? (with Christian Bjørnskov and Justina A.V. Fischer), in: Values and Economy, Proceedings of the 32nd IAREP Conference, pp.471-477, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana (2007).  
Erfolge und Misserfolge in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Information Nr. 120, pp. 1-21, Internationale Treuhand Gruppe (2006).
Corruption and the shadow economy - substitutes or complements? (with Friedrich Schneider), in: M. Kreutner (ed.), The Corruption Monster - Ethik, Politik und Korruption, pp. 363-370, Czernin Verlag (2006).
Wachstumsschwäche Schweiz: Ein Vergleich mit anderen (kleinen) europäischen Staaten (with Jan-Egbert Sturm), in: L. Steinmann and H. Rentsch (eds.), Diagnose: Wachstumsschwäche - Die Debatte über die fehlende Dynamik der Schweizerischen Volkswirtschaft, pp. 22-42, Zürich: Verlag Neue Zürcher Zeitung (2005).

Globalization and Taxation in the OECD: Evidence from a new Indicator of Integration, Public Finance and Management 5, 3: 400-420 (2005).
[Index of Globalization is available at].

Der Einfluß der Globalisierung auf die Steuer- und Sozialpolitik – eine empirische Analyse für die OECD Länder, in: R. Ohr (ed.), Globalisierung - Herausforderung an die Wirtschaftspolitik, pp. 75-96, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot (2004).

Das Personalwachstum in Internationalen Organisationen: Ein Principal-Agent Problem? Eine empirische Analyse (with Roland Vaubel und Uğurlu Soylu), in: F.-U. Pappi, E. Riedel, P.W. Thurner and R. Vaubel (eds.), Die Institutionalisierung Internationaler Verhandlungen, Mannheimer Jahrbuch für Europäische Sozialforschung, Band 8, pp. 205-232, Frankfurt/New York: Campus-Verlag (2004).
Verursacht der IWF Moral Hazard? Ein kritischer Literaturüberblick, Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Review of Economics) 54, 3: 268-287 (2003).

Book Reviews

Teunissen, Jan J. and Age Akkerman (eds.), Helping the Poor? The IMF and Low-Income Countries, The Hague: FONDAD 2005, The World Economy 30, 3: 532-533 (2007).
Stanislaw Rudolf (ed.), Emerging Markets: Social, Political, and Economic Challenges, Lodz, Poland: Lodz University Press 2004, Public Finance and Management 5, 3 (2005).


In the Press

39. NGO aid - well targeted to the needy and deserving? (with Dirk-Jan Koch, Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp) VoxEU, Mai 20, 2008.
38. Die Schweizer sind Weltbürger, Basler Zeitung, p. 4, March 22, 2008.
37. To globalize or not, business guide, p. 14-19, January/ February 2008.
36. Tschechien und die Globalisierung, Radio Praha, February 2, 2008.
35. KOF-Globalisierungsindex, Deutsche Welle, WISOmagazin, January 30, 2008.
34. Austria: Globalisation sceptical but the worlds "most globablised," Ö1 Inforadio, January 9, 2008.
33. Der Motor der Globalisierung ist nicht zu bremsen, Handelsblatt, January 9, 2008.
32. Österreich hinsichtlich Globalisierung Weltspitze, Ö1 Inforadio, January 8, 2008.
31. Mitglieder im UN-Sicherheitsrat profitieren, Basler Zeitung, November 12, 2007.
30. Ongelukkige Linksen. Staatsbeslag en Individueel Welbevinden, The Brussels Journal, October 10, 2007.
29. Das Glück kommt von Rechts, Sonntag AZ, p. 45, October 7, 2007.
28. Das rechte Glück, SonntagsZeitung, p. 87, October 7, 2007.
27. Fröhliche Rechte, muffige Linke? Blick, October 2, 2007.
26. Linke sind unzufriedener als Rechte, Spiegel online, October 1, 2007.
25. Eine Institution in der Kritik: Wem nützt die Weltbank? SWR1, 19.30h, June 29, 2007.
24. Estudo avalia que Brasil perde R$1,5 bi por ano com corrupção, O Estado de Sao Paulo, p. 4, May 27, 2007.
Globalisierung schwächt die Gewerkschaften, CASH, p. 18, January 25, 2007.
Der IMF als verlängerter Arm der USA, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, p. 23, January 4, 2007.
Hilfe muss Anreize zur Selbsthilfe geben (with Christian Hopp), Tagesanzeiger, p. 11, November 14, 2006.
Is aid tied to U.N. status? The Wall Street Journal, p.10, November 2, 2006.
Security Council Seat Tied to Aid, Washington Post, p. 19, November 1, 2006.
Der Währungsfonds ist nicht unfehlbar, Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, p. 43, October 29, 2006.
Studie sieht Missbrauch beim IWF, Financial Times Deutschland, p.18, October 25, 2006.
IMF beloont tijdelijke leden VN-Veiligheidsraad, De Tijd, p.8, October 20, 2006.
Freundschaft kann der Wirtschaft schaden (with Martin Gassebner), CASH, p. 24, September 28, 2006.
Fastfood, Musik & Klamotten: Der globale Einheitsgeschmack, Der Standard, August 17, 2006.
Es wird keine Reform gegen die Interessen der Industrienationen geben, Die Welt, p. 12, April 19, 2006.
Unter falschen Bedingungen, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, p. 13, April 15, 2006.
11. Wirtschaftliche Sicherheit in der Schweiz (with Jan-Egbert Sturm), Vorsorge, pp. 4-9, March 2006.
An der Armut ist nicht die Globalisierung schuld, CASH, p. 17, January 12, 2006.
Schattenwirtschaft und Korruption sind nicht Zwillinge (with Friedrich Schneider), Neue Zürcher Zeitung, p. 27, January 7, 2006.
Geld für die Welt, Frankfurter Rundschau, p. 28, November 16, 2005.
Wirtschaftsraum Thurgau im Mittelfeld (with Jan-Egbert Sturm), Thurgauer Zeitung, p. 20, September 27, 2005.
Mehr ist weniger, und weniger wäre mehr. Die Entwicklungsdebatte aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, p. 31, September 10, 2005.
Globalisierung geht mit Wachstum einher, Thurgauer Zeitung, p. 7, July 26, 2005.
Corrupção em debate, Folha de Sao Paulo, p. 19, May 5, 2005
Korruption hemmt die Entwicklung, Thurgauer Zeitung, p. 11, March 22, 2005.
IMF and World Bank: Should they Cooperate? Chartered Financial Analyst, pp. 32-34, December 2004.
IMF for President, Foreign Policy Magazine, p. 17, March/April 2003.

Unpublished Discussion Papers

Idiosyncratic Election to the UN Security Council (with James Vreeland), June 2008.

Do IMF and World Bank programs induce government crises? An empirical analysis (with Martin Gassebner), KOF Working Paper 200, ETH Zurich, June 2008.

Does Membership in International Organizations Increase Governments' Credibility? A Test on the Effects of Delegating Powers (with Stefan Voigt), KOF Working Paper 193, ETH Zurich, April 2008.

Formal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence (with Christian Bjørnskov and Justina Fischer), KOF Working Paper 192, ETH Zurich, April 2008.

Keeping a Low Profile: What Determines the Allocation of Aid by Non-Governmental Organizations? (with Dirk-Jan Koch, Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp), KOF Working Paper 191, ETH Zurich, March 2008.

IMF Conditionality: Theory and Evidence, KOF Working Paper 188, ETH Zurich, February 2008.

Does the IMF Help or Hurt? The Effect of IMF programs on the likelihood and outcome of currency crises (with Stefanie Walter), KOF Working Paper 186, ETH Zurich, January 2008.

Decentralization as a disincentive for transnational terror? An empirical test (with Justina A.V. Fischer), KOF Working Paper 185, ETH Zurich, January 2008.

Are NGOs the Better Donors? A Case Study of Aid Allocation for Sweden (with Florian Mölders and Peter Nunnenkamp), KOF Working Paper 180, ETH Zurich, November 2007.

The devil is in the shadow. Do institutions affect income and productivity or only official income and official productivity? (with Pierre-Guillaume Méon and Friedrich Schneider) KOF Working Paper 179, ETH Zurich, November 2007.

Do Markets Care About Central Bank Governor Changes? Evidence from Emerging Markets (with Christoph Moser), KOF Working Paper 177, ETH Zurich, October 2007.

Do Differences in Institutional and Legal Environments Explain Cross-Country Variations in IPO Underpricing? (with Christian Hopp), KOF Working Paper 172, ETH Zurich, August 2007.

Greasing the wheels of entrepreneurship? The impact of regulations and corruption on firm entry (with Martin Gassebner), KOF Working Paper 166, ETH Zurich, May 2007.

Do Human Rights Offenders Oppose Human Rights Resolutions in the United Nations? (with Bernhard Boockmann), KOF Working Paper 163, ETH Zurich, May 2007.

On Gender Inequality and Life Satisfaction: Does Discrimination Matter? (with Christian Bjørnskov and Justina Fischer), KOF Working Paper 161, ETH Zurich, April 2007.

Does Terror Threaten Human Rights? Evidence from Panel Data (with Martin Gassebner and Lars-H.R. Siemers), KOF Working Paper 156, ETH Zurich, February 2007.

Does membership on the UN Security Council influence IMF decisions? Evidence from panel data (with Jan-Egbert Sturm and James Vreeland), KOF Working Paper 151, ETH Zurich, September 2006.

The impact of political leaders’ profession and education on reforms (with Michael Lamla, Sarah Rupprecht, and Frank Somogyi), KOF Working Paper 147, ETH Zurich, September 2006.

When is a Central Bank Governor Fired? Evidence Based on a new Data Set (with Jan-Egbert Sturm and Jakob de Haan), KOF Working Paper 143, ETH Zurich, July 2006.

Do IMF and World Bank Influence Voting in the UN General Assembly? (with Jan-Egbert Sturm), KOF Working Paper 137, ETH Zurich, May 2006.

Corruption and the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Analysis (with Friedrich Schneider), KOF Working Paper 123, ETH Zurich, January 2006.

Power to the People? The Impact of Decentralization on Governance, KOF Working Paper 121, ETH Zurich, January 2006.

The Intriguing Nexus Between Corruption and Capital Account Restrictions (with Lars-H.R. Siemers), KOF Working Paper 113, ETH Zurich, November 2005 (first version: June 2003).

Student Flows and Migration: An Empirical Analysis (with Panu Poutvaara), IZA Discussion Paper No. 1612, May 2005.

Does the IMF cause moral hazard? A critical review of the evidence, February 2004.


Last Modified:  July 15, 2008 [CV] [Research] [Papers] [Teaching] [Conferences]